Signature Name: Rahul Kumar Branch: E.C.E. (4th year) Roll No: GL 5 ABSTRACT The industrial training report of DLW(DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE. A technical traning report on. Currently DLW is producing EMD GT46MAC and EMD GT46PAC locomotives under license from Electro-Motive Diesels (formerly GM-EMD) for Indian Railways. on other side Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) Varanasi is one of the largest industrial unit in eastern. Six Weeks Training Report of Dlw - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf) , Text File .txt) or read online.
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DLW is an integrated plant and its manufacturing facilities are flexible in A SUMMER FIELD TRAINING REPORT AT DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE. this is ppt based on my 4 weeks training at D.L.W varanasi I have included brief introduction along with introduction and working of various. Summer Training Report, Locomotive Manufacturing Workshops(EES Introduction To DLW Diesel locomotive works (DLW) is 2 c) Transfer of for me as I learned lot 37 REFERENCES: 1. conbymysqfime.tk
Since alternators are built to spin the lighter component in- stead of 10 the heavier one, they generally weigh only one-third as much as generators of the same capacity.
DC generators, in particular, require more maintenance because of wear on the parts that brush against one another in the commutator switch and the stress of rotating the heaviest component instead of the lightest. Also, when generators are run at higher speeds, electricity tends to arc, or jump the gap separating metal parts. The arcing dam- ages parts and could make generators hazardous to touch. Alternators can run at high speeds without arcing problems. Traction motors are used in electrically powered rail vehicles such as electric multiple units and electric locomotives, other electric vehicles such as electric milk floats, eleva- tors and conveyors as well as vehicles with electrical transmission systems such as die- sel-electric and electric hybrid vehicles.
Traditionally, these are DC series-wound motors, usually running on approximately volts. Diesel engines, therefore, do not need spark plugs, which are required to ignite the air-fuel mixture in gasoline engines.
The Diesel engine has 16 cylinders. Pistons inside the cylinders are connected by rods to a crankshaft. As the pistons move up and down in their cylinders, they cause the crankshaft to rotate. Eight 8V and four 2V Batteries are used in series to run a more powerful starter motor, which turns the crankshaft to initiate igni- tion in a diesel engine for the first time. It has numbering from and each increment causes rise in speed in forward direction.
It can also be used to reverse the direction of motion by pushing the handle in the opposite sense.
It is present on the control desk of the cab. The Cab is at one end of the locomotive with limited visibility if the locomotive is not operated cab forward. Each control desk has the Independent SA9 brake for braking of the engine alone and Auto Brake A9 for the braking of the entire loco.
The exciter and the auxiliary generator consist of two armatures on a single shaft. The auxiliary generator supplies a constant voltage of around 72V for supplying power to charge the battery for the control equipment and to power the locomotive lights. The Exciter supplies excitation for the main generator. Start- ing of Engine The supply from the batteries is given to the exciter.
The exciter has arma- ture and field windings. Hence it starts rotating as it receives the supply voltage. The Ex- 19 citer is coupled with the rotor of the alternator which in turn is connected with the pro- peller shaft. When the propeller rotates at a particular rpm, the engine gets started. Later the engine runs on diesel oil fuel. As soon as the engine starts, the auxiliary generator also coupled with the alternator starts charging the batteries. To control engine speed 2.
Deliver fuel Diesel oil according to load 3. To mediate electrical demand and diesel engine output. A compressor generates air pressure that is stored in air tanks. Air hoses connect the brakes on all the train cars into one system. Applying air pressure into the system releases the brakes, and releasing air pressure from the system applies the brack. I have seen about 28 panal trainers of different subject. I come know the capab- ility of electrical ring is going to be advance as regarding gidence to the tranise.
The complate syllabus of of operanties is present here. For guidedence tomainhouseandothertranises. Process of the locomotive of diffferent type are convert to electrical point of view. In this shop, we are discus about basic idea of assemble the loco,control panel , engine type , governer, locomotive control system etc… There are two type of locomotive engine rail engine.
Metering 2. Indication 3. Electrical en- ergy generated at power facilities is transmitted at high voltages through overhead power lines and cables. Thosetransmission lines connect to substa- tionswhich transform the power to lowervoltages for distribution to consumers through the distribu- tion system. Fig 4. The voltage of the current produced by a generating station can reach 13, volts, like at the Robert-Bourassa generating facility. Once in the transmission system, electricity from each generating station is combined with electricity produced elsewhere.
The electricity passes through cables which are suspended from towers. These towers are arranged in a series from the generating stations to source substations—which lower the voltage—and then reach the satellite substations, which further reduce the voltage.
Leaving the satellite substations, electricity travels through underground lines. At some distance from the substations, the distribution system goes from underground to over- head, and transformers attached to poles lower the voltage one last time.
Inside our homes, we use either volts to power our televisions, radios and other regular elec- trical appliances, or volts for the appliances that require a strong current like the dryer or stove. Electricity is consumed as soon as it is produced. Primary power lines 2.
Ground wire 3. Overhead lines 4. Lightning arrester 5. Disconnect switch 6. Circuit breaker 7. Current transformer 8. Transformer for meas- urement of electric voltage 9.
Main transformer Control building Security fence Secondary power lines 25 4. In a large substation, circuit breakers are used to interrupt any short circuits or overload cur- rents that may occur on the network. Smaller distribution stations may use recloser circuit breakers or fuses for protection of distribution circuits. Substations themselves do not usually have generators, although a power plant may have a substation nearby. Other devices such as capacitors and voltage regulators may also be located at a substation.
Substations may be on the surface in fenced enclosures, underground, or located in special- purpose buildings. High-rise buildings may have several indoor substations.
Indoor substations are usually found in urban areas to reduce the noise from the transformers, for reasons of ap- pearance, or to protect switchgear from extreme climate or pollution conditions. Where a substation has a metallic fence, it must be properly grounded to protect people from high voltages that may occur during a fault in the network.
Earth faults at a substation can cause a ground potential rise. Currents flowing in the Earth's surface during a fault can cause metal objects to have a significantly different voltage than the ground under a person's feet; this touch potential presents a hazard of electrocution 4. With it, we can easily multiply or divide voltage and cur- rent in AC circuits. At either end both the generator and at the loads , voltage levels are reduced by trans- formers for safer operation and less expensive equipment.
A transformer that increases voltage from primary to secondary more secondary winding turns than primary winding turns is called a step-up transformer.
Conversely, a transformer designed to do just the opposite is called a step-down transformer. Step-up and step-down transformers for power distribution purposes can be gigantic in propor- tion to the power transformers previously shown, some units standing as tall as a home. The following photograph shows a substation transformer standing about twelve feet tall.
A transformer designed to reduce voltage from primary to secondary is called a step-down transformer. Transformers designed to provide electrical isolation without stepping voltage and current either up or down are called isolation transformers. Bus bars are made up of copper rods operate at constant voltage.
Such a system consists of two bus bars, a main bus bar and a spare bus bar with the help of bus cou- pler, which consist of the circuit breaker and isolator. In substations, it is often desired to disconnect a part of the system for general maintenance and repairs. An isolating switch or isolator accomplishes this. Isolator operates under no load condition. It does not have any specified current breaking capacity or current making capaci- ty.
In some cases isolators are used to breaking charging currents or transmission lines.
While opening a circuit, the circuit breaker is opened first then isolator while closing a circuit the isolator is closed first, then circuit breakers. Isolators are necessary on supply side of cir- 28 cuit breakers, in order to ensure isolation of the circuit breaker from live parts for the purpose of maintenance.
A transfer isolator is used to transfer main supply from main bus to transfer bus by using bus coupler combination of a circuit breaker with two isolators , if repairing or maintenance of any section is required. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and interrupt current flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be re- placed, a circuit breaker can be reset either manually or automatically to resume normal oper- ation.
Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city. There are different types of circuit breakers which are:- 1. Magnetic circuit breakers Magnetic circuit breakers use a solenoid electromagnet whose pulling force increases with the current.
Certain designs utilize electromagnetic forces in addition to those of the solenoid 29 Fig 4. Thermal magnetic circuit breakers Thermal magnetic circuit breakers, which are the type found in most distribution boards, incor- porate both techniques with the electromagnet responding instantaneously to large surges in current short circuits and the bimetallic strip responding to less extreme but longer-term over- current conditions.
The thermal portion of the circuit breaker provides an "inverse time" re- sponse feature, which trips the circuit breaker sooner for larger over currents. Common trip breakers Three-pole common trip breaker for supplying a three-phase device. This breaker has a 2A rat- ing. When supplying a branch circuit with more than one live conductor, each live conductor must be protected by a breaker pole.
To ensure that all live conductors are interrupted when any pole trips, a "common trip" breaker must be used. These may either contain two or three tripping mechanisms within one case, or for small breakers, may externally tie the poles to- gether via their operating handles. Air circuit breakers Rated current up to 6, A and higher for generator circuit breakers. Trip characteristics are often fully adjustable including configurable trip thresholds and delays.
Usually electronically controlled, though some modelsare microprocessor controlled via an integral electronic trip unit, often used for main power distribution in large industrial plant, where the breakers are arranged in draw-out enclosures for ease of maintenance. Vacuum circuit breakers with rated current up to 6, A, and higher for generator circuit breakers. These breakers in- terrupt the current by creating and extinguishing the arc in a vacuum container. Oil circuit breakers A high-voltage circuit breaker in which the arc is drawn in oil to dissipate the heat and extin- guish the arc; the intense heat of the arc decomposes the oil, generating a gas whose high pres- sure produces a flow of fresh fluid through the arc that furnishes the necessary insulation to prevent a restrike of the arc.
The arc is then extinguished, both because of its elongation upon parting of contacts and be- cause of intensive cooling by the gases and oil vapor. Sulfur hexafluoride Sf6 high-voltage circuit breakers 32 A sulfur hexafluoride circuit breaker uses contacts surrounded by sulfur hexafluoride gas to quench the arc. They are most often used for transmission-level voltages and may be incorpo- rated into compact gas-insulated switchgear. Such switches are often found in electrical distribution and industrial applications, where machinery must have its source of driving power removed for adjustment or repair.
High-voltage isolation switches are used in electrical substations to allow isolation of apparatus such as circuit break- ers, transformers, and transmission lines, for maintenance. The disconnector is usually not in- tended for normal control of the circuit, but only for safety isolation.
Disconnector can be op- erated either manually or automatically motorized disconnector. Critical welds are subjected to radiographic examination. All welders are periodically tested and re-qualified for the assigned. After complete welding weldment is stress relieved and marking is done for subsequent machining.
This machine performs milling, drilling, tapping and boring operations in single setting. The machine accuracy of 10enables adhering to the tolerance required on engine block. Angular Boring Machine: Angular boring "V" boring is done of special purpose machine which is a special purpose machine, which has two high precision angular boring bars on which different boring inserts are mounted.
The cutting inserts on boring bars to achieve evenly distributed cutting load during boring operation. This contributes to accuracy while machining.
Boring bars are mounted on high precision bearings which provide control on size during angular boring. The machine is capable of boring and drilling to different sizes.
Component machine: Over components are manufactured in-house at DLW. These include ALCO turbo superchargers, lubricating oil pumps, cam shafts, cylinder heads, laser hardened cylinder liners, connecting rods and various gears. Our well-equipped Machine Shops have dedicated lines for operations like turning, milling, gear hobbing, drilling, grinding and planning etc. In addition, DLW is equipped with a variety of special purpose machines and a large number of state-of-the-art CNC machines to ensure quality and precision.
Associated manufacturing process like heat treatment and induction hardening are also carried out in-house. A new eco friendly laser hardening machine has been setup which is designed to laser harden the inner bore of engine cylinder liner and this feature advantages such as low running cost, state of the art controls to provide reliable and versatile laser power for ultimate quality requirements. Electrical machines like traction alternator, auxiliary generator and exiter are thereafter coupled on the engine.
The complete power pack with electrics are tested on computerized Engine Test Bed to verify prescribed horsepower output.
Vital parameters of engine health are checked to assure the quality of product.
Only after the engine parameters are found perfect the power pack are cleared for application on locomotives. Component Fabrication: Precision cutting and forming of sheet metal is utilised for manufacture of superstructures including drivers cab engine hoods, and compartments for housing electrical equipment. All activities connected with pipes like pickling, bending, cutting, forming and threading of pipes of various sizes are undertaken in another well-equipped work area.
All electrical equipment is assembled in the fabricated control compartments and driver's control stands are done in another work area. Under frame Fabrication: Under frames are fabricated with due care to ensure designed weld strength. Requisite camber to the under frame is provided during fabrication itself. Critical welds are tested radio-graphically. Welder training and their technical competence are periodically reviewed.
High Horse Power HHP under frame is fabricated using heavy fixtures, positioners to ensure down hand welding. Fixtures are used to ensure proper fitting of components and quality welding in subsequent stages.
Bogie Manufacturing: Special purpose machines are utilized for machining cast and fabricated bogie frames. Axle and wheel disc machining is undertaken on sophisticated CNC machines.
Inner diameter of wheel discs are matched with the outer diameter of axles and assembled on wheel press. The complete truck bogie , including bogie frames, wheels and axles, brake rigging and traction motors are assembled which is ready for application to locomotive.
Loco Assembly: Tested engines are receives from Engine Division. Similarly under frames are received from Loco frame shop and assembled trucks from Truck machine shop. Superstructure compartments and contractor compartment are received from respective manufacturing and assembly shops of Vehicle Division.
Electrical control equipments are fitted and control cable harnessing is undertaken. The complete locomotive is thus assembled before being sent onwards for final testing and spray painting. All locomotive are rigorous tested as per laid down test procedures before the locomotive is taken up for final painting and dispatch for service. Ravi Gupta sir who is section engineer in the HWS told about the cylinder block machining and there operations.
Sanjay Kumar sir who is section engineer in the Engine shop told about EMD engine and its firing order. Many workers also helped during the vocational training and told many things. In the fitting shop workers of diesel locomotive works DLW learn about the fitting. In the fitting shop I have visited many things Fitting tools: The tools use in fitting shop is classified into following groups.
Measuring tools: These tools are use to measure the length, Diameter and height. Holding device: These device is use to hold the job. In have seen Parallel Jaw Vice is use to hold the job in fitting shop. Cutting tools: These tools are use for cutting the job.
I have seen these cutting tools in DLW fitting shop Hacksaw, chisel and files Striking tools: These tools are use to strike the job. These type of tool are hammer. I have seen these hammers in DLW fitting shop Ball peen hammer, straight peen hammer, cross peen hammer.
Marking tools: These tools are use for marking the job. Where workers and student are learns basic thing about the machine which is use to make diesel locomotive works DLW.
I have seen following machine in the machine shop Lathe Machine: The lathe is used for producing cylindrical work. The work piece is rotated while the cutting tool movement is controlled by the machine. Shaper Machine: Shaper is a machine used for the production of flat surfaces in vertical, horizontal, or angular planes. Drilling Machine: A machine designed to hold drill bits which will produce cylindrical holes.
Milling Machine: A milling machine uses a rotating tool to produce flat surfaces. A very flexible, light-duty machine. Grinding Machine: Grinding is a cutting technique used when close tolerances and very smooth finishes are required. CNC Machine: The automation of machine tools that are operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually via hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated via cams alone.
These are CNC operation contour milling, face milling, slot and keyway cutting, template drilling, reaming, and boring. Turning operation: In this operation shaft is make circular and cylindrical. This is done on center lathe 2. Facing operation: Facing is a lathe operation in which the cutting tool removes metal from the end of the work piece.
Boring: Boring is an operation to enlarge and finish holes accurately. This may be done on a lathe or a milling machine. Drilling operation: Drilling is an economical way of removing large amounts of metal to create semi-precision round hole or cavity. Grinding operation: Grinding is an operation in which the cutting is done by the use of abrasive particles.
Shaping: Shaping is an operation used to produce flat surfaces. In LAS I have seen there are step by step process for the assembled the locomotive. There is a sequence for assemble. In LAS Electrical control equipment is fitted and control cable harnessing is undertaken.
Tested engines are received from Engine Division. Important alignments like crank shaft deflection, compressor alignment and Eddy Current clutch radiator fan alignment are done during assembly stage. Operation in LAS: 14 1. Drive cap assembly Air compressor assembly Control stand assembly 2.
Driver cap checking Air brake piping 3. Long hood assembly Buffer assembly Radiator setting 4. Engine setting Compressor setting 5. Long hood setting Auxiliary generator assembly and setting Alternator part packing and assembly 6. Equipment assembly Fuel oil parking Lube oil piping Engine water cooling piping 7.
Driver sheet setting Damper assembly Air duct setting 2. Heavy welding shop HWS is inside the shop floor. There is all shop of manufacturing process. In heavy welding shop HWS there are made 16 cylinder V block engine.
This engine is made by fabrication. I have seen following things in HWS. Steel plates of sizes up to 80 mm thickness are ultrasonically tested before being precision cut by numerically controlled flame cutting machines, Plasma Cutting Machine. In gas metal arc welding they use inert gas for resist corrosion effect and wire of mild steel MS. This flux is used to resist the corrosion effect.
Saddle used in the ALCO engine. Saddle has three types. Saddle: Saddle is a base on which other sheets are joined by fabrication. It width is 4. Centre saddle: 1 centre saddle is use in ALCO engine.
It width is 6. Total number of saddle used is 9 in ALCO engine. Second operation is joined the foundation plate at saddle. One is left side and other is right side. Third operation is spline Joined at saddle.
Fourth operation is joined outside wall. This operation is joined 2 middle deck centre. It width is 40 mm. This operation is joined 2 in side wall. It width is 20 mm.
This operation is joined 2 top Deck.